• First, the Basics The knee is a fairly complicated joint. It consists of the femur above, the tibia below, the kneecap (or patella) in front, and the bean-like fabellae behind. Chunks of cartilage called the medial and lateral menisci fit between the femur and tibia like cushions. Assorted ligaments hold everything together and allow the knee to bend the way it should and keep it from bending [...]

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    The thyroid gland is a general regulator of the metabolism. Hypothyroidism is usually a spontaneous disorder that results in a progressive loss of thyroid function. Hypothyroidism results in a decreased metabolism, which results in weight gain, general loss of energy, dry or thin hair coat, decrease in muscle strength, decreased ability of tissues to heal, and decreased immune system function, [...]

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    Dogs with Special Faces Wendell Powers, relaxing on his home lawn Most people are not familiar with the term Brachycephalic, but if you own a pug, Boston terrier, Pekingese, boxer, bulldog, shih tzu or any one of the other breeds with "pushed in" faces, you should become familiar with this word. The word comes from Greek roots Brachy, meaning short and cephalic, meaning head. Brachycephalic[...]

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    (revised July 2011) Arthritis is very common in older cats. One study showed that approximately 90% of cats over the age of 12 have some level of arthritis present, and it has been found in cats as young as 2-3 years of age in some circumstances. Arthritis is not a reversible condition once it develops, and it always progresses over time. Also, the symptoms of arthritis in cats are very subtle, [...]

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    (revised July 2011) Arthritis is not a reversible condition once it develops, and it always progresses over time. Also, dogs tend to be the most stiff/painful after rest, so you are probably seeing that your dog is stiff getting up after a nap, etc. Arthritis in dogs, just like in people, is also more pronounced in cold or wet weather. Many people see that their older pet is just getting up [...]

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